Turkish Journal of Urology
Invited Review

Retrograde intrarenal surgery for renal stones - Part 1

1.

Department of Urology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven School of Medicine, Leuven, Belgium

2.

Department of Urology, Selçuk University School of Medicine, Konya, Turkey

Turk J Urol 2017; 43: 112-121
DOI: 10.5152/tud.2017.03708
Read: 875 Downloads: 438 Published: 25 July 2019

Abstract

The main aim in the treatment of renal stones is to clearance of the stones completely with the least morbidity. Parallel to the improvements in technology during recent years, new flexible ureterorenoscopes and effective lithotripters such as holmium laser have been developed, thus retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) has become an efficient and safe option in the management of urinary system stone disease with a gradually increasing popularity. Therewithal, innovations in auxiliary equipment such as guide-wires, ureteral access sheath and stone baskets have made this procedure more effective. With this modality, nowadays, the vast majority of renal stones can be treated successfully without need of open surgery or percutaneous nephrolithotomy. RIRS can be used as a primary treatment in patients with renal stones smaller than 2 cm, in cases with prior unsuccessful shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), infundibular stenosis, renoureteral malformation, musculoskeletal deformity, bleeding diathesis as well as obese patients. The efficiency of this procedure has been also proved in pediatric patients. In the first part of this detailed review for RIRS, history, indications and contraindications, preoperative preparation, antibiotic prophylaxis, anesthesia, surgical technique related to flexible ureteroscopes and auxiliary equipment being used, postoperative care and complications of this operation are discussed with up-to-date literature.

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