Turkish Journal of Urology
ENDOUROLOGY - Review

Basic and advanced technological evolution of laser lithotripsy over the past decade: An educational review by the European Society of Urotechnology Section of the European Association of Urology

1.

2nd Department of Urology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Sismanogleio Hospital, Athens, Greece

2.

University Hospital Southampton NHS foundation Trust, Southampton, UK

Turk J Urol 2021; 47: 183-192
DOI: 10.5152/tud.2021.21030
Read: 598 Downloads: 120 Published: 28 May 2021

Laser disintegration of urinary stones is a cornerstone of urolithiasis treatment in the modern era. Despite the wide clinical use of stone lasers, basic and advanced technological achievements and developments are difficult to comprehend and interpret by the average urologist. A descriptive analysis of laser production and stone disintegration mechanisms was performed. We focused on physics of modern types of lithotripters, the construction of laser fibers, laser parameters, new modes, settings, and lithotripsy techniques. The main principle of laser emission remains the same since the first emitting laser was produced. Peak power density and short interaction time lead to photothermal effects responsible for stone disintegration. Modern lithotripters such as Holmium: YAG (low/high power, Moses technology) and thulium fiber laser show basic construction differences with the physical properties of the latter being superior, at least in in vitro studies. By adjusting lasing parameters, a wide spectrum of stone ablation from fragmentation to dusting can be achieved. New technology allows for the production of real dust. Knowledge of laser fiber construction and physical properties are useful in marketing and clinical use. Urologists should understand the physical and physiological background of the lasers used in their everyday practice for stone fragmentation.

Cite this article as: Tzelves L, Somani B, Berdempes M, Markopoulos T, Skolarikos A. Basic and advanced technological evolution of laser lithotripsy over the past decade: An educational review by the European Society of Urotechnology Section of the European Association of Urology. Turk J Urol 2021; 47(3): 183-92.

Files
EISSN 2149-3057