ISSN 2149-3235 | E-ISSN 2149-3057
FEMALE UROLOGY - Invited Review
Underactive bladder: A review of the current treatment concepts
1 Department of Urology, Gaziantep University School of Medicine, Gaziantep, Turkey  
2 Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA  
Turk J Urol 2019; 45: 401-409
DOI: 10.5152/tud.2019.37659
Key Words: Clean intermittent catheterization; pharmacotherapy; surgical treatments; underactive bladder.


According to the International Continence Society standardization reports, underactive bladder (UAB) is a decrease in detrusor contraction and/or shortening of the contraction time, resulting in an incomplete and/or prolongation of the bladder emptying within the normal time frame. It has been indicated that idiopathic, neurogenic, myogenic, and iatrogenic factors play a role in the etiology. To make a diagnosis, it is absolutely necessary to perform a pressure-flow study. Treatment alternatives are generally based on the evacuation of the lower urinary tract, independent of the etiology. UAB treatments are listed under the headings of conservative methods and clean intermittent catheterization, pharmacotherapy (alpha-blockers, cholinesterase inhibitors, muscarinic agonists, prostaglandin E2, and acotiamide), surgical treatments (sacral nerve stimulation–electrical stimulation, injections into the external sphincter, surgeries to be performed for bladder outlet obstruction, reduction cystoplasty, and latissimus dorsi detrusor myoplasty), and stem cell and gene therapies. It is still controversial whether satisfactory success is achieved in the treatment of patients with UAB. Owing to the better understanding of the pathophysiology, future developments in the pharmaceutical industry, gene therapy, and biomedical applications are expected to close the gap in the treatment.



Cite this article as: Bayrak Ö, Dmochowski RR. Underactive bladder: A review of the current treatment concepts. Turk J Urol 2019; 45(6): 401-9.

Key Words
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