Turkish Journal of Urology
ENDOUROLOGY - Systematic Review

The role of fluid intake in the prevention of kidney stone disease: A systematic review over the last two decades

1.

Department of Urology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Trust, Southampton, UK

2.

University Hospital Southampton NHS Trust, Southampton, UK

3.

Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, State of Qatar

4.

Urological Surgery Department, University Hospital Southampton NHS Trust, Southampton, UK

Turk J Urol 1; 1: -
DOI: 10.5152/tud.2020.20155
Read: 231 Downloads: 77 Published: 08 June 2020

Objective: The incidence of kidney stone disease (KSD) is rising worldwide; hence, more focus must be directed toward its etiology and risk factors. Increasing fluid intake is recommended as the most ideal prevention; yet, there is inconsistent evidence surrounding optimum volumes and types of fluid that affect stone formation. This review aimed to analyze the published literature on fluid intake and types of fluid consumed and their impact on KSD prevention.

Material and methods: Papers were acquired from databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library. Included English language studies that involved adults consuming beverages along with a standardized diet in relation to KSD. Those failing to control dietary factors were excluded.

Results: After an initial search of 1099 papers, 9 (541 participants) were included in the final review. Six varieties of water and ten different types of juices were investigated. Higher fluid intake was associated with increased urine output and reduced stone formation. Water with high calcium content seemingly increased the rate of calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation. The relative supersaturation of CaOx in urine was decreased with grapefruit, apple, orange juices, and sodas, whereas cranberry juice increased it. Plum juice and the energy drink Gatorade had no effect on stone formation.

Conclusion: Fluids low in calcium seem to reduce the risk of KSD. Certain varieties of fluid, such as grapefruit, apple, and orange juices reduce urine CaOx saturation, with a subsequent reduction in stone formation. Findings from this review could contribute to primary prevention for those at risk of KSD.

Cite this article as: Gamage KN, Jamnadass E, Sulaiman SK, Aboumarzouk O, Pietropaolo A, Somani BK. The role of fluid intake in the prevention of kidney stone disease: A systematic review over the last two decades. Turk J Urol 5 June 2020. DOI: 10.5152/tud.2020.20155. [Epub Ahead of Print]

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ISSN2149-3235 EISSN 2149-3057