Turkish Journal of Urology
GENERAL UROLOGY - Original Article

Review of 175 Cases of Tuberculosis Infections Affecting the Urogenital System

1.

Department of Urology, São João Hospital Center, Porto, Portugal

2.

Department of Surgery and Physiology Porto University Faculty of Medicine, Porto, Portugal

3.

Department of Clinical Pathology, São João Hospital Center, Porto, Portugal

4.

Department of Pathology, São João Hospital Center, Porto, Portugal

5.

Life and Health Sciences Investigation Institute, Minho University Faculty of Medicine, Braga, Portugal

Turk J Urol 2022; 48: 440-445
DOI: 10.5152/tud.2022.22148
Read: 296 Downloads: 16 Published: 22 November 2022

Objective: Urogenital tuberculosis and disseminated tuberculosis affecting urogenital system are more frequent in developing countries but are often overlooked in developed ones. We aimed to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of urogenital tuberculosis and disseminated tuberculosis affecting the urogenital system.

Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from patients with tuberculosis in the urogenital system, diagnosed in a tertiary center in a European country, from 2008 to 2018. Cases were divided into urogenital tuberculosis and disseminated tuberculosis affecting the urogenital system and compared.

Results: We included 172 patients, 31 with urogenital tuberculosis and 141 with disseminated tuberculosis affecting urogenital system. Patients with disseminated tuberculosis affecting the urogenital system were younger (median 45 vs. 64 years, P=.001), more likely to be male (80 vs. 55%, P=.005), or having risk factors for the disease (84 vs. 23%, P=.005) than patients with urogenital tuberculosis. Patients with urogenital tuberculosis presented most commonly with symptoms related to the urinary tract, with 52% complaining of lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to urinary tract infections and 48% of dysuria, while patients with disseminated tuberculosis affecting the urogenital system presented mainly with systemic symptoms, with 89% complaining of malaise, 62% of fever, and 57% of anorexia. Patients with urogenital tuberculosis were more likely to need urological surgery as part of their treatment (71 vs. 5%, P < .001) and patients with disseminated tuberculosis affecting the urogenital system were more likely to die due to tuberculosis (10 vs. 21%, P < .001).

Conclusion: Tuberculosis of the urogenital system can have multiple clinical presentations, and a simple diagnostic algorithm does not exist. In the presence of urogenital tuberculosis in injected drug users, immunosuppressed individuals, or patients with systemic symptoms, we should think of disseminated tuberculosis affecting the urogenital system and remember these patients less frequently need surgery but entail a worst outcome.

Cite this article as: Dias N, Pina-Vaz T, Abreu-Mendes P, et al. Review of 175 cases of tuberculosis infections affecting the urogenital system. Turk J Urol. 2022;48(6):440-445.

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