ISSN 2149-3235 | E-ISSN 2149-3057
Invited Review
Retrograde intrarenal surgery for renal stones - Part 2
1 Department of Urology, Selçuk University School of Medicine, Konya, Turkey  
2 Department of Urology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven School of Medicine, Leuven, Belgium  
Turk J Urol 2017; 43: 252-260
DOI: 10.5152/tud.2017.22697
Key Words: Flexible ureteroscopy; kidney stone; laser lithotripsy; retrograde intrarenal surgery; ureteral access sheath.

Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) has become an effective and safe treatment modality in the management of urinary system stone disease. Recent developments and innovations in the flexible ureterorenoscope and auxiliary equipment have made this procedure easier and more effective with increased success rates. RIRS can be used as a primary treatment in patients with renal stones smaller than 2 cm, prior unsuccessful shock wave lithotripsy, infundibular stenosis, renoureteral malformation, skeletal-muscular deformity, bleeding diathesis and obese patients. In the second part of this detailed review for RIRS, effect of stone composition on success rate, preoperative assessment of stone-free rate, the cost of this modality, education for RIRS, fluoroscopy use, the current role of RIRS in the treatment of various urolithiasis types and special conditions, and combined treatment methods are discussed with up-to-date literature.


Cite this article as: Kılıç Ö, Akand M, Van Cleynenbreugel B. Retrograde intrarenal surgery for renal stones - Part 2. Turk J Urol 2017; 43: 252-60

Key Words
AVES | Copyright © 2018 Turkish Association of Urology | Latest Update: 13.06.2018